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Students in grades K–3 have a natural curiosity about their world, which leads them to develop a sense of number. Young children are motivated to count everything around them and begin to develop an understanding of the size of numbers (magnitude), multiple ways of thinking about and representing numbers, strategies and words to compare numbers, and an understanding of the effects of simple operations on numbers. Building on their own intuitive mathematical knowledge, they also display a natural need to organize things by sorting, comparing, ordering, and labeling objects in a variety of collections.

Consequently, the focus of instruction in the number and number sense strand is to promote an understanding of counting, classification, whole numbers, place value, fractions, number relationships (“more than,” “less than,” and “equal to”), and the effects of single-step and multistep computations. These learning experiences should allow students to engage actively in a variety of problem solving situations and to model numbers (compose and decompose), using a variety of manipulatives. Additionally, students at this level should have opportunities to observe, to develop an understanding of the relationship they see between numbers, and to develop the skills to communicate these relationships in precise, unambiguous terms. (VA DOE Standards of Learning)

Number and Number Sense

a) tell how many are in the set by counting the number of objects orally;

b) write the numeral to tell how many are in the set; and

c) select the corresponding numeral from a given set of numerals.

a) count forward to 100 and backward from 10;

b) identify one more than a number and one less than a number;

c) count by fives and tens to 100.

Students in grades K–3 have a natural curiosity about their world, which leads them to develop a sense of number. Young children are motivated to count everything around them and begin to develop an understanding of the size of numbers (magnitude), multiple ways of thinking about and representing numbers, strategies and words to compare numbers, and an understanding of the effects of simple operations on numbers. Building on their own intuitive mathematical knowledge, they also display a natural need to organize things by sorting, comparing, ordering, and labeling objects in a variety of collections.

Consequently, the focus of instruction in the number and number sense strand is to promote an understanding of counting, classification, whole numbers, place value, fractions, number relationships (“more than,” “less than,” and “equal to”), and the effects of single-step and multistep computations. These learning experiences should allow students to engage actively in a variety of problem solving situations and to model numbers (compose and decompose), using a variety of manipulatives. Additionally, students at this level should have opportunities to observe, to develop an understanding of the relationship they see between numbers, and to develop the skills to communicate these relationships in precise, unambiguous terms. (VA DOE Standards of Learning)

**Virginia Mathematics Standards of Learning**Number and Number Sense

**k.1**The student, given two sets, each containing 10 or fewer concrete objects, will identify and describe one set as having more, fewer, or the same number of members as the other set, using the concept of one-to-one correspondence.**k.2**The student, given a set containing 15 or fewer concrete objects, willa) tell how many are in the set by counting the number of objects orally;

b) write the numeral to tell how many are in the set; and

c) select the corresponding numeral from a given set of numerals.

**k.3**The student, given an ordered set of ten objects and/or pictures, will indicate the ordinal position of each object, first through tenth, and the ordered position of each object.**k.4**The student willa) count forward to 100 and backward from 10;

b) identify one more than a number and one less than a number;

c) count by fives and tens to 100.

**k.5**The student will identify the parts of a set and/or region that represent fractions for halves and fourths.