*The curriculum framework offers an explanation of the specific STRAND and detailed*

*expectations of the*

*material that should be covered by the teacher and learned by*

*the students (according to the Virginia*

*Department of Education Standards of*

*Learning).*

K.13 The student will gather data by counting and tallying.

Understanding the Standard

· Data are pieces of information collected about people or things. The primary purpose of collecting data is to answer questions.

· Tallying is a method for gathering information. Tally marks are used to show how often something happens or occurs. Each tally mark represents one occurrence. Tally marks are clustered into groups of five, with four vertical marks representing the first four occurrences and the fifth mark crossing the first four on a diagonal to represent the fifth occurrence.

· When data are presented in an organized manner, students can describe the results of their investigation (i.e., identifying parts of the data that have special characteristics, including categories with the greatest, the least, or the same number of responses).

· In the process of gathering data, students make decisions about what is relevant to their investigation (e.g., when collecting data on their classmates’ favorite pets, deciding to limit the categories to common pets).

· When students begin to collect data, they recognize the need to categorize, which helps develop the understanding of “things that go together.” Categorical data are used when constructing picture graphs and bar graphs.

K.14 The student will display gathered data in object graphs, picture graphs, and tables, and will answer questions related to the data.

Understanding the Standard

· Object graphs are graphs that use concrete materials to represent the categorical data that are collected (e.g., cubes stacked by the month, with one cube representing the birthday month of each student).

· Picture graphs are graphs that use pictures to show and compare information.

· Tables are an orderly arrangement of data in which the data are arranged in columns and rows in an essentially rectangular format. Tables may be used to display some type of numerical relationship or organized lists (e.g., input/output functions, tables showing one candy costs five cents and two candies cost 10 cents).

· Students represent data to convey results of their investigations at a glance, using concrete objects, pictures, and numbers to give a “picture” of the organized data.

· When data are displayed in an organized manner, children can describe the results of their investigations.

· Graphs can be used to make connections between mathematics and social studies and/or science (e.g., job areas and the different people that work in these areas: health — doctors and nurses; education — teachers and principals).

Statements representing an analysis and interpretation of the characteristics of the data in the graph (e.g., similarities and differences, least and greatest, the categories, and total number of responses) should be asked.